Wyoming senators author bill refuting EPA ruling that Riverton is reservation land

2014-04-02T07:00:00Z Wyoming senators author bill refuting EPA ruling that Riverton is reservation landBy KYLE ROERINK Star-Tribune staff writer Casper Star-Tribune Online

In a counterblow aimed at ending the boundary dispute over the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming Sens. Mike Enzi and John Barrasso drafted a bill with the aid of Gov. Matt Mead’s office to refute the EPA decision that Riverton is part of the reservation.

The trio’s legislation is the latest step in a border war that’s pitted members of the Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone tribes against Wyoming’s elected officials.

The conflict, sparked by the EPA ruling, has ignited tensions between tribal and non-tribal residents of central Wyoming and fueled a debate over which governmental officials have jurisdiction to determine reservation boundaries.

Each side claims the other is unqualified to determine a boundary.

Wyoming lawmakers have harangued the Environmental Protection Agency for concluding that a 1905 land act long thought to have usurped Riverton from the reservation did not do so. Tribal members claim the new draft bill is an arbitrary boundary rewrite done by politicians who have no expertise in delineating borders.

The draft legislation declares the disputed 171,000 acres encompassing Riverton have never been part of the reservation and will continue to remain outside the reservation’s borders.

Despite claims that the environmental regulator acted unilaterally, the EPA, Interior Department and Justice Department reviewed the boundary decision before it became public in December. The EPA cited scores of legal and congressional precedents to substantiate its decision, including an opinion from the Interior Department’s solicitor general.

Despite the federal review, Wyoming’s politicians disagree with the process that led to the EPA’s verdict.

The EPA and court decisions based on EPA actions should not be used to change long-established boundaries, said Coy Knobel, communications director for Enzi.

“Sen. Enzi doesn’t want to change the current boundaries,” he said. “He wants to make sure they stay as they have been for decades.”

Barrasso’s office said the boundaries outlined in 1905 are legal.

“These boundaries should be followed by all parties including the EPA and other federal agencies,” said Laura Mengelkamp, Barrasso’s spokeswoman.

Members of the Northern Arapaho Business Council met with members of the congressional delegation last week to discuss the matter. Enzi’s office claims it worked on the legislation with all stakeholders: the tribes, state government, Fremont County and Riverton.

But the Northern Arapaho said the consulting process didn’t have all hands on deck.

Tribal members asked Enzi and the delegation to reconsider drafting the bill, but they were not interested in doing so, said Northern Arapaho Business Council member, Al Addison.

“The Arapaho business council has been actively opposing anti-sovereignty legislation from the Wyoming delegation for years,” said business councilman Ronald Oldman. “We are prepared to deal with this. But tribal members at Wind River should not be misled. The people in leadership for Wyoming are not our friends.”

The Northern Arapaho’s neighbors on the reservation, the Eastern Shoshone, are less heated about the bill.

“Generally speaking, these types of bills often save everybody time and money in regards to court actions,” said Kimberly Varilek, the tribe’s attorney general. “I think once the tribe has the chance to review the proposed bill they will certainly reach out to the congressional delegation and engage with the senators and the state of Wyoming in regards to the impacts across the board.”

The bill is the second arm of a two-pronged attack by Mead to negate the EPA decision.

The legislation is paired with Wyoming Attorney General Peter Michael’s petition in the U.S. 10th Circuit Court of Appeals that’s challenging the EPA decision. Devon Energy and the Wyoming Farm Bureau Federation also joined Wyoming to fight against the EPA, Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone in court.

The move for the state to attack the decision in court kicked off in February and jump-started a legal battle that’s likely to end with a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court.

After filing the lawsuit against the EPA, federal legislation was one of few options remaining on the table for challenging the EPA decision.

The tag-team between Mead and the congressional delegation isn't highlighted often, but it's common for them to work together on Wyoming issues. The Star-Tribune obtained an email from Enzi's office sent to a member of the Arapaho business council that says Mead "has been working with (Enzi's) office on the ... draft legislation."

“(The governor) appreciates the delegation’s efforts,” said Renny MacKay, Mead’s spokesman.

The draft legislation has yet to be introduced and is under review, Knobel said.

The boundary dispute erupted after the EPA granted the tribes Treatment as a State status under the Clean Air Act.

The distinction affords tribes eligibility for more federal dollars and the ability to monitor their air quality like any state in the union.

For the Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone tribes, applying for state status warranted a ruling on the boundaries of the reservation. The Clean Air Act and EPA’s regulations require the agency to determine a boundary associated with the Tribes application, according to the EPA.

The status does not give tribes any regulatory authority, but does give them the ability to comment and monitor their air quality up to 50 miles beyond the reservation’s boundary.

Contact Kyle



Follow him on Twitter @kyleroerink1

Copyright 2015 Casper Star-Tribune Online. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

(34) Comments

  1. Hill Town Trader
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    Hill Town Trader - April 09, 2014 10:15 am
    Not according to the presentation by the tribes formal counsel before the Riverton board last week.
  2. SofaSpud
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    SofaSpud - April 06, 2014 7:11 pm
    I find it odd that you are the only one trying to us this particular argument. No one in the city, county, state or federal government has or is proposing this as a plan of attack. In fact, the state was all for the tribes seeking "treatment as a state" at one point.

    If it were really as simple as you propose, Enzi and Borrasso would have no need to propose an act of congress to address the issue.

    This hatred for the tribes that you have.....seems personal. Your understanding of the issue shows a lack of real world experience on the matter. You should expand your research beyond the internet.
  3. Kool Kat
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    Kool Kat - April 05, 2014 9:59 pm
    It gets very tiring to read "natives" as yourself writing falsely about what is happening. A ruling - regarding Constitutional law has been violated due to "borders/boundaries" involving the 1905 Act.
    This EPA decision gave "statehood status" to the reservation that has no chance of being upheld. Therefore since this "language is in question" of the Act of 1905, that is now being addressed.
    Either accept the truth or continue spreading poisonous vitriol to "today's" future unborn natives. After all, that's how most of this started to begin with, and with use of Casino money, Constitutional laws are now broken/violated.

    Article IV
    Section. 3
    New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

    The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State
  4. Kool Kat
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    Kool Kat - April 05, 2014 1:01 pm
    Attn Hill Town Trader, the 1905 Diminished Border Act encompassed these areas. Enzi and Barasso's bill does not change any boundaries, it just defines them, so a bill breaking an Act will not change anything except the language. I wouldn't sweat the 1905 Act borders from changing.
  5. SofaSpud
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    SofaSpud - April 05, 2014 10:49 am
    The response from "our" congressional "representatives" is typical in the way the federal government handles issues with the tribes. Don't like the rules? Simple. Change the rules.

    It's clear as day. They saw they would lose the court case. The only other option is an act of congress.
  6. SofaSpud
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    SofaSpud - April 05, 2014 10:17 am
    You won't be taxed by the tribes if you are on deeded land. As I have said many, many, many, times before. You won't need to be voting or running for tribal council because the tribes won't, and don't, have jurisdiction over non-natives on deeded land. TERO will not apply.
  7. SofaSpud
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    SofaSpud - April 05, 2014 10:15 am
    You won't be taxed by the tribes if you are on deeded land. As I have said many, many, many, times before. You won't need to be voting or running for tribal council because the tribes won't, and don't, have jurisdiction over non-natives on deeded land. TERO will not apply.

    You are acting like this is some new concept...deeded land within the boundaries of the reservation. You should do some research and ask some people who are, right now, in the situation Riverton could be in. I have made these inquiries of residents and businessmen who operate on deeded land within the boundaries of the reservation. Most have read your comments and all who have read your comments agree....you don't know what you are talking about.
  8. Hill Town Trader
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    Hill Town Trader - April 05, 2014 10:01 am
    Much of local anxiety comes not from racism, but from fear being put under the BLM/BIA federal thumb.

    You have to admit, adding angry white folks to the already dysfunctional Arapahoe, Shoshone, BIA, BLM mix is not going to make this area better - only worse.

    Our concern is not race - it is competence.
  9. Hill Town Trader
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    Hill Town Trader - April 05, 2014 9:57 am
    Actually the Arapahoe are NOT from this area. They were dumped here in the late 1800s. Many local ranches were well established by then.

    The Shoshone were hill people from farther west, in the land of big horn sheep. The Wind River bottom lands are new to them.

    The Reservation is an artificially created construct, with on long history of concentrated habituation by Native Americans.

    Given that the Shoshone and Araphoe hate each other, why not cut a deal. Shoshene take in clear clean deed all the uplands in the west of the reservation, Absoroka and Shoshone forests. Araphoe, a plains people get clean title to trust lands in the existing reservation, and leave agricultural lands developed under private ownership as part of Wyoming. Throwing everyone in together is just an invitation for dysfunction.
  10. Hill Town Trader
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    Hill Town Trader - April 05, 2014 9:48 am
    But BLM has oversight on reservation lands: Not acceptable to ranchers and farmers who have worked their butts off to develop their lands.

    Per Tribes own former counsel, non-native business would be subject to TERO law.
  11. Hill Town Trader
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    Hill Town Trader - April 05, 2014 9:41 am
    When I read the TERO reservation law I laughed and laughed and laughed.

    Running a business on the REZ under TERO is like opening a bar in Brooklyn: A guy named Guido shows up at your door and tells you that you will be using x company for garbage removal, Y company for glassware, and Z company for linens (and your business will burn if you don't) These companies are of course mob owned and very high priced. And then Guido advises you that you will be putting his sister's kid on the payroll. A nice kid, no education, not too bright but he's my sister's kid....and you can't fire him. In wonder there is so little business on the Rez - no entrepreneur will tolerate that kind of rule, if Lander is 20 minutes down the road.

    I stopped laughing went the kind author of this article explained that the privately owned lands, 800,000 acres would be thrown under this rule.
  12. Hill Town Trader
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    Hill Town Trader - April 05, 2014 9:31 am
    However the Enzi/Barrasso bill, particular section 2b. may extend reservation/BLM/BIA jurisdiction over 800,000 acres, Pavillion, Midvale, Kinnear and Morton (but not Riverton). Thank you dear Senators.

    It seems that Enzi is going to throw private-owned ranches and farms under the federal bureaucratic bus.

  13. Hill Town Trader
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    Hill Town Trader - April 05, 2014 9:27 am
    It seems that Enzi and Barrasso are going to expand on the EPA adventure, not reverse it.

    While EPA was allowing the tribes a seat at the air monitoring table, some readings of the Enzi bill (section 2 b.) will give the tribes full jurisdiction over an additional 800,000 acres and 4000 to 6000 non-natives in the disputed area minus Riverton.

    By some readings, including this newspaper's, the 1925 act which excluded Riverton, included all the rest. Enzi bill recognizes this change and will put Midvale, Pavillion, Kinnear and Morton under Reservation rule on all matters, not just air monitoring.

    Much of this is Ocean Lake valley, a highly productive agricultural area, as the result of over 100 years of private ownership, hard work and investment. The western part of this area has always been part of the reservation. Other then a few defunct reservoirs and abandoned ditches, the Indian portion, despite the same soil and geology, shows no such success.

    About 14 years ago, the tribes won greater access to even more water. However that water has never been used, investments have never been made, none of the hard work associated with developing ranch and farm land has been done. Rumor has it that conflicts and bureaucratic overload between Arapahoe, Shoshone, BIA and BLM have block action at every turn. The management structure of the reservation is the antithesis of effective management of agricultural lands.

    Enzi's bill may put all the privately owned farms and ranches of Midvale, Pavillion, Kinnear and Morton under the reservation jurisdiction, adding a fifth warring party to an already dysfunction management environment. BLM is notorious for poor management and glacial decision making. The ranchers and farmers of the Ocean Lake valley do not welcome an hint of BLM having any perceived authority over the management of the land they developed successfully. BIA is no more welcome.

    The Tribes former attorney told that Riverton city counsel that Tribal Employment Rights Office (Title X of the Reservation laws) does have jurisdiction over non-native businesses within the outside boundaries of the reservation. This means that all private ranches and farms must pay the reservation 2% of gross revenues on all sales. All venders and suppliers must be Indian-owned or Tribal certified, and all new employees must be enrolled Tribal members whether qualified or not. Enzi's bill may throw 4,ooo to 6,ooo non-native and 800,000 acres into this intolerable jurisdictional horror show.

    Non-natives and lands privately owned for over 100 years will be denied any right to vote on these taxes or laws. Taxation without representation was a rallying cry of the American Revolution. Don't expect the Wyoming citizens to lay down for taxation without representation.

    We non-native do not object to jurisdictional change on race or anti-indian, but on evidence of spectacular mismanagement of the existing lands in the Reservation- most of which can be laid at the feet of the Feds: BIA and BLM. Don't hand well managed private lands over to Arapahoe/Shoshone/BIA/BLM dysfunctional administration.
  14. thruth
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    thruth - April 04, 2014 9:54 am
    wyopoke knows zip.... the tribes have nothing to lose with the boundaries remaining as they are? what part of the fact the federal agencies declared the boundary is what the tribes have been saying all along...that it never was diminished...what part of...the boundary's are the same as they have been for 110 years, undiminished don't you get...what part of, the state of Wyoming and its racist redneck republicans are the ones trying to change boundary's.

    as for what we lose, jurisdiction over tribal members, unlawful taxation and a intact border

    ask yourself what does Wyoming and the most racist little former train stop in Wyoming now known as riverton lose?.....lets se, they cant tax tribal members and lose a reported 25% or more of the cities revenue, um they cant jail natives unless they waive their rights, so they would be taken to tribal jail instead, they cant tax tribal members, they lose the fine money from tribal misdemeanors, um they lose the ability to tax tribal members...uh did I mention they lose the ability to tax tribal members?

    as for stewardship of the lands...you do realize we have some of the best fishing in Wyoming, we set aside a huge track of land for wilderness and roadless area way back in 1930 and it will remain pristine, you must not see our range units have grass and are not looking like the dried up overgrazed ones you see off the rez specially the muddy ridge area...so again your talking out the wrong end again cowboy.

    as for Riverton being a slum...you got that wrong, Riverton is built off tribal money, its monthly boost from tribal percap is what keeps the place relevant, without that riverton would be in a race with Hudson and Shoshoni to see which town is declared a ghost town first.

    so can you back it up in researched fact that the good white folk would lose everything and be harmed by us dastardly saveges to the point they leave the area?

    im not talking koolkats absurd theories, im talking fact, proof, examples....not opinions, ...fact

    doubt it

  15. wyoslick
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    wyoslick - April 03, 2014 7:45 pm
    Name calling is hardly a cogent argument. Do you have any objections to the proposed legislation beyond accusing politicians of being cowardly?
  16. Kool Kat
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    Kool Kat - April 03, 2014 6:08 am
    Attn Todd, that's the point, the US EPA is a regulatory agency and nothing more. They carry no Legislative Authority without "Congressional Approval", which they requested none and received none in this case.
  17. Kool Kat
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    Kool Kat - April 03, 2014 6:04 am
    Attn fed up, in response to your overzealous comment. I'd rather see "tax paying ranchers" receive assistance than non-taxpaying natives on the Reservation receive assistance. See how that works?

    And no, that's not what I said! The tribes are using Casino money to buy bureaucrats in DC and lobbyists to manipulate the law enough to break it.
  18. Kool Kat
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    Kool Kat - April 03, 2014 5:59 am
    Attn SofaSpud, my response as does Enzi's and Barrasso's fall under Article 4 Section 3 - here it is in case you have no desire to know.
    Article IV
    Section. 3.
    New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

    The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
    That is where the US EPA foolishly gave into the tribes demands. The US EPA [even under Obama] is still a regulatory agency and not Congress. You and other natives call it changing, but never point out where the law where it is "supposedly" being changed.
    The 1905 Diminished Boundary Treaty Act did receive the signature of approval by the two tribal chiefs. Now are you eluding to the fact that today's tribal members wish not to honor the two tribal chiefs?
    Because if that be the case - the US Congress can always abolish all treaties, therefore abolishing the Reservations. As the tribes can not have it both ways, even though there is socialist-liberal president that likes offering more welfare.
    The American Tax Payer can not withstand any more burdens om like manner.

    Fact: the Constitution was broken through the Obama Administration and must be corrected now.
  19. Todd
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    Todd - April 03, 2014 5:32 am
    In the first place where does the Environmental Protection Agency get any authority whatsoever to rule on property boundaries? What next will they also strip the Arapaho nation of their rights in the area since they were not from this region? Any mineral rights where they originally came from? The way Native Peoples were treated by the government was terrible, on the other hand will those things be changed by doing the same thing to American citizens living there now? If we are going to start giving land and homes back to the American Indian tribes, let's start in DC and the rest of the east.
    Remember Arapaho and Shoshone citizens, it was the United States bureaucrats who made the reservations and have kept you there without the right to own your own land, it was NOT your neighbors. Taking their homes and generations of work on non Indians will only add to those who are wards of the government, it won't give you anything at all.
  20. SofaSpud
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    SofaSpud - April 02, 2014 11:12 pm
    What they, and you, so conveniently call "cleaning up", many will call changing current law. Some will call it a blatant land grab. I don't think they, or you, understand the ramifications of taking this action. A lot of rash actions based on very little fact.
  21. LVHS77
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    LVHS77 - April 02, 2014 9:26 pm
    The feds need to clean house on the entire reservation. The corruption on the reservation is even worse than Chicago.
  22. wyochris
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    wyochris - April 02, 2014 7:09 pm
    ...I noticed ONE TRUE THING in your senseless Garble-fed up! You are right about the fact that YOU are one of the ONLY "self-entitled scum" to occupy this planet! I've been reading your and the other Lib's Drivel on here for months and just can't take it any more! I guess it's time to get rid of the Trib so I can live peacably and without reading your mindless cr@p!
  23. Completely Fed Up
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    Completely Fed Up - April 02, 2014 6:28 pm
    "What's worse is, both tribes used bureaucrats in DC to do their illegal activity. "

    So, you're saying they're like the welfare ranchers.
  24. Wyopoke
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    Wyopoke - April 02, 2014 5:20 pm
    The natives stand to lose absolutely nothing with the boundaries remaining as they have been. In fact they really don't exercise good stewardship over the land they control.

    However if the borders change as dictated by the EPA thousands of good people lose everything. If the non natives leave they take the economy with them and Riverton regresses into a slum in disrepair. Sad but true.
  25. Kool Kat
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    Kool Kat - April 02, 2014 5:16 pm
    Attn SofaSpud, due to Article 4 Section 3 of the US Constitution, it will be a loss for the US EPA and translate as a loss for the tribes. If the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals makes that decision off the US Constitution, as they should Thew State will win this one hands-down.
    As I believe Barrasso and Enzi are attempting to clean up the language of the past, in which the Wyoming Supreme Court has already ruled, Riverton "is not Indian Country". I also know you're a native and respect that but, breaking the US Constitution does not warrant "an assumed win".
    I believe the Congress - as you do - has to rewrite, with clarity, the 1905 Act to point Riverton, Kinnear and Pavilion as "outside the exterior boundaries" of the Wind River Reservation. That should go a long ways to clarify future misunderstandings.
  26. Wyopoke
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    Wyopoke - April 02, 2014 5:15 pm
    If you were caught up in this mess would you cede the rights to your property and dwelling to the reservation or fight for your right to maintain ownership?

    It's pretty easy to flick boogers at the chalk board when you don't have a dog in the fight.
  27. SofaSpud
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    SofaSpud - April 02, 2014 4:16 pm
    You wouldn't be allowed to vote for, or run in, tribal council because the tribes wouldn't have jurisdiction over non-natives.
  28. SofaSpud
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    SofaSpud - April 02, 2014 4:12 pm
    On the one hand Borrasso and Enzi say that the law is clear, Riverton is not Indain Country. But then they come along and propose a bill that will define Riverton as not being Indain Country. If the law is clear now, why do we need a new bill?

    I think the Feds and state figured out that it's not quite as clear as they thought and that odds are, the courts will side with the tribes. The only way to bypass the courts is an act of congress. This is going to set a dangerous precedent. They both should have stayed out of it.
  29. Completely Fed Up
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    Completely Fed Up - April 02, 2014 2:38 pm
    How many 100s (as in 100, plural) of years were the native people here, before the whites, with "manifest destiny" in their hearts, came along and drove them out? And, then we ripped them off with the holy cession around the turn of the 20th Century. We whites are the most self-entitled scum to occupy the planet ... but our day is just about over, all your boo, hooing notwithstanding. I'm glad to see the uppity folks of Riverton in an uproar. They deserve it.
  30. Hill Town Trader
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    Hill Town Trader - April 02, 2014 2:29 pm
    That the Federal Government has kept the tribes as wards of the federal government, unable to own, outright, their reservation lands is tragic, and has resulted in all the ills associated with a welfare culture. I would strongly advocate for transferring all the 1.8million trust land to the tribal counsel as a clean deed.

    The 16,000 non-indians and and owners of 1.1million acres of well developed agricultural land do not wish to be sucked into this welfare/ward culture. For over one hundred years we have worked our land and raised families as citizens of Wyoming. Our land deeds are registered with Fremont County, not the BIA land office.

    Native rights are not the only rights at stake. We non-natives have rights as well. And as non-natives, if sucked into the reservation, we would not be allowed to vote for Tribal Counsel, because of the color of our skin.

    The Tribes will push for a compromise, exempting Riverton. This would throw the citizens of Pavillion, Kinnear and the unincorporated areas under the bus. Why the compromise: the tribes know that if Riverton was included, the populations of whites on the reservation would out number the non-native, creating a gigantic representation problem. By excluding Riverton about 6,000 people would lose their right to vote, but the enrolled members of the tribes would slightly outnumber them.

    Enzi and Barrasso provided this draft bill to the tribes for comment, but have made no effort at all to share this bill with the non-natives, as if we do not matter. Excuse me, but we white folks do matter.
  31. Kool Kat
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    Kool Kat - April 02, 2014 1:50 pm
    This is very good to see members of the Congressional Delegation raising the question as to Reservation necessities. This could actually start the first Congressional rebuke between the Congress and the US EPA, while the Congress reviews the 1905 treaty to realize that not only is a Reservation necessary but, a treaty.
    I look forward to seeing the collapse of the Department of Indian Affairs and other agencies dealing with Indian Affairs. This scam lead fleecing of the American tax payer has lasted for far too many generations. And since the Tribes can't seem to remain a sovereign people for other non-natives.
    Its time to end the facade of a "Government Ward" structure for these same people. What's worse is, both tribes used bureaucrats in DC to do their illegal activity.
  32. Completely Fed Up
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    Completely Fed Up - April 02, 2014 1:25 pm
    Praise be, it's the living incarnations Horatio Alger and Fred Van Ackerman to the rescue. What a state of idiocy.
  33. Pogo
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    Pogo - April 02, 2014 10:46 am
    Various incarnations of Marxism have been the dominant expression -- and motivators -- of the liberal left in America: socialism, statism, income redistribution , environmentalism, and now boundary redefintion among others. Nothing comes close to environmentalism in generating statism enthusiasm. The earth has supplanted patriotism. The elites control such clandestine mutations that are forced on what once passed as a stable society, culture and sovereign nation. Who are the Wyoming elites? We all know. Every state and our country at large have them. Ultimately, this boundary bruhaha is symptomatic of the trend . Nature over man. As G.K. Chesterton noted, "When people stop believing in God, they don't believe in nothing --- they believe in anything."
  34. thruth
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    thruth - April 02, 2014 9:27 am
    another cowardly attack by the politicians of the so called "equality" state
    perhaps it should be reworded as WYOMING, THE EQUALITY STATE!!, unless your native americans.

    or perhaps it shows the fear driven motive behind it...the state and its cowardly racist leaders know, the tribes are right and the reservation was never diminished, they know if the tribes get a fair and honest opinion, the state looses

    when has the Wyoming senators together with the gov...ever sponsored a congressional bill

    to deliberately hurt fellow Wyoming citizens...I guess if killing Indians was still accepted we would have had another sand creek with these guys underhanded and cowardly ways
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